Xavier de Souza BriggsXavier de Souza Briggs is Associate Director of the Office of Management and Budget in the White House. He is an Associate Professor of Sociology and Urban Planning (on leave) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). A former community planner, Dr. Briggs’ award-winning research is about democracy, inequality, and racial and ethnic diversity in cities and metropolitan regions. He is the editor of The Geography of Opportunity (Brookings, 2005) and author of Democracy as Problem-Solving: Civic Capacity in Communities Across the Globe (MIT Press, 2008). It examines efforts to lead change on unsustainable urban growth, regional economic restructuring, and the healthy development of the next generation, drawing on cases in the U.S., Brazil, South Africa, and India. His latest book is Moving to Opportunity: The Story of an American Experiment to Fight Ghetto Poverty (Oxford, 2010), with co-authors Susan Popkin and John Goering. Briggs is founder and director of two innovative online resources: The Community Problem-Solving Project @ MIT and Working Smarter in Community Development. Briggs holds an engineering degree from Stanford, an MPA from Harvard, and a Ph.D. in sociology and education from Columbia University.