Community Development Innovation Review

February 2009

The CRA within a Changing Financial Landscape


The financial landscape has changed significantly since the passage of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) in 1977. In this paper we provide an overview of how these changes have affected the coverage of the CRA, the structure of CRA-regulated institutions, and their effectiveness in meeting the goals of the CRA. By design and necessity we take a broad approach. In so doing, we hope to provide a useful contextual background for the other articles in this volume that focus on changes in the CRA’s implementing regulations, and more specific aspects of the CRA, its coverage and effectiveness.

Download the article (pdf, 945.25 kb)

Other articles in this issue

Expanding the CRA to All Financial Institutions

A Banker’s Quick Reference Guide to CRA

The Community Reinvestment Act: Good Goals, Flawed Concept

A Principle-Based Redesign of HMDA and CRA Data

Community Reinvestment Emerging from the Housing Crisis

Putting Race Explicitly into the CRA

The CRA as a Means to Provide Public Goods

The Community Reinvestment Act: 30 Years of Wealth Building and What We Must Do to Finish the Job

CRA 2.0: Communities 2.0

What Lessons Does the CRA Offer the Insurance Industry?

A Framework for Revisiting the CRA

CRA Lending During the Subprime Meltdown

A More Modern CRA for Consumers

The Community Reinvestment Act: Past Successes and Future Opportunities

A Tradable Obligation Approach to the Community Reinvestment Act

The Community Reinvestment Act at 30 Years

It’s the Rating, Stupid: A Banker’s Perspective on the CRA

The Community Reinvestment Act: Outstanding, and Needs to Improve

The 30th Anniversary of the CRA: Restructuring the CRA to Address the Mortgage Finance Revolution

The Community Reinvestment Act and the Recent Mortgage Crisis