Government Spending: Measuring Federal Expenditures

See how government spending has expanded in recent years and how spending dollars have compared across various functions, like education, national defense, and income security.

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''Government Spending: An Economic Boost?'' Wilson, Daniel J. FRBSF Economic Letter (February 6, 2012).

''Measuring the Effect of the Zero Lower Bound on Medium- and Longer-Term Interest Rates.'' Williams, John C. and Eric T. Swanson. FRBSF Working Paper 2012-02 (2012).

''Fighting Downturns with Fiscal Policy'' Leduc, Sylvain. FRBSF Economic Letter (June 19, 2009).