Working Papers

2014-16 | May 2016


Long-Run Risk is the Worst-Case Scenario


We study an investor who is unsure of the dynamics of the economy. Not only are parameters unknown, but the investor does not even know what order model to estimate. She estimates her consumption process nonparametrically – allowing potentially infinite-order dynamics – and prices assets using a pessimistic model that minimizes lifetime utility subject to a constraint on statistical plausibility. The equilibrium is exactly solvable and we show that the pricing model always includes long-run risks. With risk aversion of 4.7, the model matches major facts about asset prices, consumption, and dividends. The paper provides a novel link between ambiguity aversion and non-parametric estimation.

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Article Citation

Bidder, Rhys, and Ian Dew-Becker. 2014. "Long-Run Risk is the Worst-Case Scenario ," Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper 2014-16. Available at