Gender gaps in labor market outcomes during the pandemic are largely due to differences across parents: Employment and labor force participation fell much less for fathers as compared to women and non-parent men at the onset of the pandemic; the recovery has been more pronounced for men and women without children, and; the labor force participation rate of mothers has resumed declining following the start of the school year. The latter is partially offset in states with limited school re-openings. Evidence suggests flexibility in setting work schedules offsets some of the adverse impact of the pandemic on mothers’ employment, while the ability to work from home does not.
Leduc, Sylvain. 2021. “Clouded in Uncertainty: Pursuing Financial Stability with Monetary Policy,” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper 2021-03. Available at https://doi.org/10.24148/wp2021-03