We envision a healthy and inclusive economy in which all people can fully participate, and no one is left behind.


As part of our research on residential instability in the Bay Area, we partnered with the City of Oakland’s Department of Housing and Community Development to explore residential instability and racial inequities resulting from gentrification and housing unaffordability. Here are some key findings from our research along with considerations for policy and practice.

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Community Development Innovation Review

Posted August 19, 2021

This issue of the Community Development Innovation Review examines the promise and pitfalls of financial technology, or fintech, for fostering racial equity and greater financial inclusion. Edited in partnership with the SF Fed’s Fintech team and Aspen Institute’s Financial Security Program, this issue brings together a broad set of voices from people working in various roles—including in technology, community development, economic inclusion, regulation, and investment—to contextualize gaps in the financial system and consider ways to address them.

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In the Fall of 2020, the Federal Reserve conducted the Small Business Credit Survey (SBCS) to gather information on small businesses’ performance and outlook, financing needs, and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and related economic slowdowns. Arizona, California, and Hawaii are states in the Twelfth Federal Reserve District with enough 2020 SBCS responses to inform their own state reports.

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Access to affordable child care is crucial to parents’ ability to participate in the workforce. However, in many places—especially lower-income communities and communities of color—affordable child care isn’t available to meet this need.

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We listen to our communities to better understand on-the-ground economic conditions throughout the Twelfth Federal Reserve District.



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Community Close-Up: The “Donut Kids” of California

"Donut kids" is a term coined by the children of Cambodian-American donut shop owners to acknowledge their shared identities growing up in and around donut shops. This photo series highlights their voices and experiences.

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