Table of Contents


Laura Choi, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco and Ida Rademacher, Aspen Institute

The Racialized Roots of Financial Exclusion

Why do racial differences in access to financial services persist despite existence of anti-discrimination and fair lending laws? This article describes the legacy of historical exclusion and current barriers to access.

Rocio Sanchez-Moyano and Bina Patel Shrimali, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

Fundamentals of an Inclusive Financial System

This article provides a vision for an inclusive financial system: what it entails, what it does, and the benefits it will bring, both widespread and reparative.

Genevieve Melford, Tim Shaw, and Mack Wallace, Aspen Institute Financial Security Program

Regulation to Build a More Inclusive Financial System and Drive Financial Health

Regulators play an important role in the fintech ecosystem. This article explores the tensions involved in the regulation of financial technologies.

Sean Creehan and Kaitlin Asrow, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

The Role of Public and Private Capital in Digital Infrastructure for Finance in the United States

Investments in digital infrastructure can facilitate innovation and financial inclusion.

Kabir Kumar and Tilman Ehrbeck, Flourish Ventures

Global Developments in Inclusive Financial Systems

What can we learn about fintech and financial inclusion from other countries?

Mayada El-Zoghbi, Center for Financial Inclusion

Americans Need a Digital Identity System, Stat!

A digital identity system has the potential to close gaps in access to financial services.

Waldo Jaquith, State Software Collaborative, Georgetown University’s Beeck Center

The Next Frontier: Expanding Credit Inclusion with New Data and Analytical Techniques

New types of data and analysis can promote financial inclusion, but care is needed to ensure new techniques do not amplify inequities.

Kelly Thompson Cochran, FinRegLab

How Can Regulation Facilitate Financial Inclusion in Fintech?

How has fintech changed the assumptions that underpin consumer protection regulations and where do we go from here?

Carol Evans and Karen Pence, Federal Reserve Board of Governors

The Tech-Enabled Social Safety Net: A Case Study of the EBT System

A carefully-designed tech-enabled social safety net can improve experiences for people participating in government programs.

Julieta Cuéllar, Propel

Why Mission-Minded Fintechs May Be the Key to Closing the Savings Gap

Nonprofit fintechs are well-positioned to develop and distribute financial tools to the people who need them most.

Leigh Phillips, SaverLife

CDFIs’ Mission-Driven Orientation Is Critical to Making Financial Technology Work for Deep South Communities

How can financial services technology be improved by leveraging the experiences of CDFIs serving historically underserved communities?

Pearl Wicks and Diane Standaert, Hope Enterprise Corporation/Hope Credit Union/Hope Policy Institute

CDFI and Fintech Partnerships: A Promising Avenue for Affordable, Fast, and Equitably Distributed Small-Business Capital

CDFIs and fintech can leverage each sector’s unique expertise for greater impact. This article shares key lessons for successful partnership.

Gwendy Brown and Luz Urratia, Accion Opportunity Fund

Designing for Whom? Lessons from a Coordinated Relief Effort to Reach Student Loan Borrowers Most in Need

The development of two interventions focused on vulnerable student loan borrowers during the height of the pandemic provide key design lessons.

Maria Lajewski and Nataly Sabharwal, Financial Health Network