This paper solves a standard New Keynesian model in terms of risk-neutral expectations and estimates it using a cross-section of longer-dated financial assets at a single point in time. Inflation risk premia appear in the theory and cause inflation to deviate from its target on average. We re-estimate the model based on each day’s closing prices to capture high-frequency changes in the expected path of the economy. Our estimates show that financial markets reacted to the post-COVID surge in inflation with higher short-run inflation expectations, an increase in the inflation risk premium, and an increase in the long-run neutral real rate, 𝑟∗, while long-term inflation expectations remained well anchored. Our model produces long term inflation forecasts that outperform several standard alternative measures.
Mertens, Thomas M., and Tony Zhang. 2023. “A Financial New Keynesian Model,” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper 2023-35. Available at https://doi.org/10.24148/wp2023-35